Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II was a French monk and cardinal who became pope in 1088. He was a charismatic and influential leader who played a key role in the Gregorian Reform movement, which sought to strengthen the papacy and reform the Church. Urban II is best known for his call to arms at the Council of Clermont in 1095, which launched the First Crusade. He is also credited with helping to establish the papacy as a major political force in Europe.